As part of Russia’s authoritarian turn following Vladimir Putin’s return to the presidency in May 2012, the Kremlin has launched an unprecedented crackdown on the Russian Internet.


The United States and likeminded countries that advocate liberal democracy have a historic opportunity to establish a robust, long-term media investment fund to stimulate new markets, create new ownership, especially of emerging and new media, and promote innovative technologies.

Media as a Form of Aid in Humanitarian Crises

As the humanitarian crises following the Arab spring enter their sixth year, the media coverage of war, displacement, and migration in the Middle East and North Africa tragically have become all too familiar. For mainstream media, the millions of people whose lives have been upended are mostly data points, illustrations of the misery and upheaval that have swept across Syria, Yemen, Gaza, Iraq, and many places between. Yet for those who are caught in the crises, and plagued not only by insecurity and uncertainty but a lack of information, relatively little is available to help them make informed decisions for their own survival.

Is it time for an Algorithm Ombudsman?

Given the power of algorithms in shaping our information ecosystem perhaps as well as their clear imperfections, perhaps it is time for social media companies to think about creating the position of “Algorithm Ombudsman” – an outsider who would be given privileged access to a company’s algorithm in order to ensure that the public good was being taken into account.

Upcoming Event - Pushing Back: Next Generation of Journalists in Eastern Europe and Eurasia

The Vaclav Havel Journalism Fellowship (VHJF) is a joint initiative of RFE/RL and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, generously supported by the Dagmar and Vaclav Havel Foundation. Join us for a conversation with this year's Vaclav Havel Fellows to discuss their experiences as young journalists in a time of heightened pressure on the media in Eastern Europe and Eurasia.

Colombia's Peace Process: How can the Press Contribute?

Bold journalists are covering stories that in the past editors might have suppressed out of fear of upsetting those in power. In an effort to promote freedom of information and expression, new media is strengthening democratic institutions and promoting peace.

The Droids You're Looking for: Bots as Tools for Journalists

Social bot can work as proxy accounts–a sort of journalistic scaffolding–to tweet information on particular events. The last two years have seen the emergence of increasingly creative “news” social bots. Reporters, activists, and civic-society groups have built public-facing social bots–programs that mimic human user accounts, sending messages and interacting with other accounts, on sites like Reddit, Twitter, and Tumblr–to engender conversation on pressing social issues, reveal political stances or actions of elected officials, and call attention to protests

What is Media Development?

The term “media development” refers to evolution and change in the fields of news media and communications. This evolution can be stimulated by donor support, private investment, or indigenous processes of change led by media owners, managers, journalists, or other players such as media industry associations, or other collective efforts.


Press Freedom Scores


In Montenegro, business leaders and government pressure independent media. The government tends to play favorites towards certain public media outlets. In addition, right to access is not always respected, especially with regards to government corruption incidents. Check out what the major media freedom indices have to say. (All scores are adjusted to a 0-100 scale).

  • IREX
  • FH
  • RSF